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President review: Hayes, Garfield, Arthur, Cleveland, and Harrison

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Continuing the review of U.S presidents after Grant, I’ll be reviewing the presidents from 1877 to 1893. Most of presidents didn’t do anything that impacted the country. But I’ll review these presidents by what laws they passed that hurt or benefited the country.


Rutherford B. Hayes 1877-1881

When entering the 1876 election, Hayes come out as a compromise candidate between Ulysses Grant and James Blaine. But when the election day come, it was rather hard to tell who won the most electoral votes. So a 15 member group was assembled to decide the election but the majority of them republican. In order to not cause havoc in the south. The southern democrats agreed with Hayes as long they removed federal troops from the south. Which means ending the era of reconstruction. The era of reconstruction was a period when the southern states was being brought back into the union. Besides that, he enter into political scrabbles with people in his party and senators. The other noteworthy thing he failed to do was to veto the Bland Allison act which restored the silver dollar.

  • Ending the era of reconstruction


James Garfield 1881-1881

In order to make the factions inside the republican party satisfied, the delegates chose James Garfield and Chester Arthur. James Garfield spent most of his time assembling his cabinet and trying to appease all factions. Who were called the half breeds and Stalwarts.  Apparently one disgruntled attorney assassinated  Garfield and declared, “I am a stalwart and Arthur is president now.”

  • Didn’t do anything


Chester Arthur 1881-1885

When entering the office, many expected him to be just be a corrupted politician. As the reason he become president was because of machine politics. Machine politics was when a small autocratic group controlled who had the power to chose a nominee. But he surprised many by passing the Pendleton civil service act which based on getting a federal jobs by merit instead of political connections to others. It also prevented workers for being fired for political reasons. Arthur vetoed a bill that suspended Chinese immigration for 20 years. But he signed the Chinese exclusion act. which was like the previous bill but only a 10 years suspension. He also helped modernize the U.S navy

  • Chinese Exclusion act
  • Pendleton civil service act
  • Modernization of the U.S navy


Grover Cleveland 1885-1889

Instead of Arthur running for reelection, it was James Blaine who was running for president. Who ran against Grover Cleveland. Both candidates had affairs with other women. But in the end, Cleveland won the election. As president, he vetoed many bills that tried to help civil war veterans by giving them land and federal funds. But he singed many acts that gave land to individual Native American tribe members. Besides all of this, he didn’t do much for his first term.

  • Vetoing bills that helped the civil war veterans
  • Gave land to Natives Americans


Benjamin Harrison 1889-1893

When Harrison enter the office, he established the international union of American republics. Which dealt with the pacific islands at the time. He backed the McKinley tariff act of 1890 and supported the Sherman silver purchase act. The act’s goal was to get 4.5 million ounces of silver per month. He expanded anti monopoly laws like the Sherman antitrust act and continued the expansion of the Navy. Around the world, he built a canal in Nicaragua and annexing Hawaii. Also negotiating with Germany and Britain to set up American dominance in the Samoan islands.

  • Sherman antitrust act
  • Expansion of navy
  • American dominance in Samoan


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President review: Hayes, Garfield, Arthur, Cleveland, and Harrison